While we do offer stem cell therapy for knee osteoarthritis, the focus of this article will be on Platelet-Rich Plasma Therapy. We receive many emails which ask which is the better treatment for me, stem cells or PRP? That answer comes best after a physical examination and when we have the opportunity to sit down together and discuss what are your goals of treatment. Goals of treatment would be different for a mountain climber than a stair climber at home.
In the same regard, we get many emails that ask us if PRP is better than hyaluronic acid injections or cortisone injection. Many of these people already had cortisone and hyaluronic acid injections. They are somewhat skeptical because these treatments did not help them as much as they thought they would.
In our experience, we have found PRP injections to be the superior treatment when compared with hyaluronic acid injections or cortisone injection. In fact we have submitted our findings for peer-review and upcoming medical journal publication. Supporting our view most recently is a 2019 study in the medical journal Orthopade (1) which found that Intra-articular PRP injections into the knee for symptomatic early stages of knee osteoarthritis are a valid treatment option. The clinical efficacy of Intra-articular PRP injections is comparable to that of the Intra-articular-hyaluronic acid injections and Intra-articular cortisone after 3 months, HOWEVER, the long-term effectiveness of PRP injections is superior to hyaluronic acid and cortisone.
What are PRP or Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections and how do they help issues of chronic knee pain?
- PRP treatments involve collecting a small amount of your blood and spinning it in a centrifuge to separate the platelets from the red cells. The collected platelets are then injected into the knee to stimulate healing and regeneration.
- PRP Injection Therapy is a natural (using your own blood platelets) and is a cost-effective alternative to surgery—designed to rebuild cartilage, repair torn meniscus and ligaments, and reduce swelling and pain. In the hands of an experienced clinician, it is not a treatment to delay joint replacement, it is a treatment that can help a patient avoid a surgery. It works by stimulating the natural immune repair mechanisms and supplying the growth factors necessary to build tissue.
- PRP injection delivers a high concentration of endogenous (your own “home-grown”) platelets to the knee where osteoarthritis is present. Blood is composed of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It’s these platelets that are the injury’s “first-responders” and help revascularize an injured area, construct new tissue, and stop the bleeding.
- Because platelets play a significant role in the healing of tissue, reintroducing a high concentration of platelets directly into the injured area may enhance the healing process.
In this article we will discuss research on grade 1 to 3 knee osteoarthritis and PRP treatments. When a new patient comes into our office for a consultation for their knee osteoarthritis, we do a careful assessment of the patient and then make recommendations. Sometimes, the lack of range of motion in this patient’s knee and other factors lead us to a recommendation of stem cell injections. This recommendation is based on a realistic expectation of what both treatments may offer. For some, having the PRP only may not offer the healing that they hope to achieve.
Why has the use of Platelet Rich Plasma therapy (PRP) for knee osteoarthritis seen a dramatic increase in the past few years? Research.
Doctors at the world’s leading medical universities and hospitals are showing that PRP can regenerate damaged knee cartilage and meniscus in patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis and PRP can also enhance healing after knee ligament reconstruction.
An October 2018 study in the journal Current reviews in musculoskeletal medicine (2) says this:
“Recent research into the applications of PRP for knee osteoarthritis has further indicated both the efficacy and safety of PRP treatment. Although research has shown a tendency toward better efficacy at earlier stages of osteoarthritis, evidence exists to indicate positive effects at all stages of osteoarthritis. In summary, since knee osteoarthritis is an extremely prevalent condition that can be a challenge to treat, it is imperative that safe and effective nonoperative treatment methods be available to individuals that are suffering from this condition.”
In July 2018, medical university researchers in Ireland lead a multi-national European research team to conclude in their research:
“Platelet-rich plasma therapy is a simple, low-cost and minimally invasive intervention which is feasible to deliver in primary care to treat degenerative lesions of articular cartilage of the knee. This therapy appears to have minimal associated adverse events and may have beneficial effects in terms of pain, health utility, patient satisfaction and goal-orientated outcomes.”(3)
What is interesting about this study is who the PRP helped:
- The 12 participants in the study had an average age of 72.6 years and average Body Mass Index (SD) of 31.8 meaning that the average person in this study was obese and seven (58%) were male.
- The most common goal of this group was was to be pain free,
- followed by walking normally without aid
- Reduction of knee stiffness
- prevention of knee replacement
- and being able to dance and garden again.
Even a single injection of PRP provided benefit.
In the video below (there is no sound), I demonstrate how why administer PRP. In this case the patient has problems of meniscus degeneration. We apply multiply injections to support regeneration of the whole knee. Below the video is research that showed positive results of even a single PRP injection against a single placebo injection.
In November 2017, researchers reported on the benefits of PRP compared to placebo injection in patients who had osteoarthritis in both knees. Published in the American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation, the study showed PRP treatment significantly improves pain, stiffness, and disability in patients with knee osteoarthritis compared to normal saline (placebo) treatment.(4)
Also in November 2017, in the International journal of rheumatic diseases, researchers reported a summary of the most recent findings on the benefits of PRP for knee osteoarthritis.
- This study performed an overview of the research to provide recommendations for PRP use in knee osteoarthritis patients through the best evidence. “They concluded that PRP is an effective intervention in treating knee osteoarthritis without increased risk of adverse events.”(5)
In the medical journal Arthroscopy, a journal devoted to obviously arthroscopy, surgeons are told that Platelet Rich Plasma injections (PRP), offers better symptomatic relief to patients with early knee degenerative changes (than hyaluronic acid or placebo), and its use should be considered in patients with knee osteoarthritis.(6)
This is a verification of early research from the Mayo Clinic which came to the same conclusion – PRP showed better improvement than hyaluronic acid injection and placebo in reducing symptoms and improving function and quality of life. Especially in in younger, active patients with low-grade osteoarthritis.(7)
This is from the Mayo Clinic research:
“Intraarticular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection has emerged as a promising treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Studies to date, including multiple randomized controlled trials, have shown that PRP is a safe and effective treatment option for knee osteoarthritis. Intraarticular PRP is similar in efficacy to hyaluronic acid, and seems to be more effective than hyaluronic acid in younger, active patients with low-grade osteoarthritis. Treatment benefits seem to wane after 6-9 mos. There are numerous PRP treatment variables that may be of importance, and the optimal PRP protocol remains unclear.”
At the end of that paragraph the Mayo team points out that benefits may only last 6 – 9 months and that there is much variation in the way PRP is delivered so it is difficult to understand why PRP may not work.
Is PRP a “one and done” treatment? For some yes, for many NO
When we see a new patient with degenerative knee disease who had “failed” PRP treatments at other clinics, we ask them how many treatments did they have? More often than not they say “one injection.” For some with minor osteoarthritis, as pointed out by the medical studies highlighted in this article, one injection provides benefit.
But one injection may not be sufficient for someone who has a more active lifestyle than others.
Research on two PRP injections
Here is a recent study where the patients received two PRP injections as the complete PRP treatment program. This treatment group was considered to be “active.” This research was published in the journal Sports Health.(8)
- Fifty patients with knee osteoarthritis were followed for a minimum of 12 months.
- All were treated with 2 intra-articular injections of autologous PRP.
- Twenty-five patients had undergone a previous operative intervention for cartilage lesions, whereas 25 had not.
- Note – 25 of the 50 patients had some type of surgical procedure on their knee before their first PRP treatment. Operated patients had undergone either cartilage shaving or microfracture.
- All patients (even the ones with past knee arthroscopic procedure) showed significant improvement in all testing and measurement scores for pain and function at 6 and 12 months and returned to previous activities.
Research on three PRP injections
A paper published in the Journal of physical therapy science.(9) It comes from doctors working in medical university hospitals in Turkey.
- One of the major results of this study was the effectiveness of PRP treatment for pain and physical function in grade 3 knee osteoarthritis.
- The effectiveness of a single injection was found to be significantly lower than that of two or three injections.
- 3 PRP injections separated by 2-week intervals were found to be more effective for the improvement of pain and mobility than 2 injections in Grade 3 osteoarthritis patients
- A significant effect was observed in the early period after a single injection of PRP, but the effect decreased in a short time. Based on the present results, we recommend 2 or 3 injections of PRP for patients with moderate knee osteoarthritis, and physicians’ decisions should be based on various factors such as the level of pain, level of activity, cost-effectiveness, and Body Mass Index
- We further speculate that repeating the application after 6 months may further relieve symptoms for a longer period and delay osteoarthritis progression.
Research for athletes
Below is what doctors are saying to each other about athletes who want to stay active. It was published in the medical journal Cartilage: “As a result of the complexity of the arthritic knee, athletes, particularly those with a history of knee injury, have an earlier onset and higher prevalence of osteoarthritis. This can present a clinical dilemma to the physician managing the patient who, despite the presence of radiologically confirmed disease, has few symptoms and wishes to maintain an active lifestyle.”(10)
The difficulty or “challenge” is in the prevention of advancing of knee osteoarthritis. Here the typical recommendations of anti-inflammatory medications, knee braces, and ice, those that the athlete can impose upon themselves, will lead to further knee deterioration. It is a challenge to convince an athlete of this when it may get them on the course, track of field this weekend.
In a recent study, researchers at Hospital for Special Surgery gave patients with early osteoarthritis an injection of PRP (6-mL), and then monitored them for one year. At baseline and then one year after the PRP injection, physicians evaluated the knee cartilage with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While previous studies have shown that patients with osteoarthritis can lose roughly five percent of knee cartilage per year, the Hospital for Special Surgery investigators found that a large majority of patients in their study had no further cartilage loss. At minimum PRP prevented further knee deterioration.
Ask Dr. Darrow about your knee pain and how PRP may help you
A leading provider of stem cell therapy, platelet rich plasma and prolotherapy
11645 WILSHIRE BOULEVARD SUITE 120, LOS ANGELES, CA 90025
1 Huang Y, Liu X, Xu X, Liu J. Intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma, hyaluronic acid or corticosteroids for knee osteoarthritis. Der Orthopäde. 2019 Jan 8:1-8.
2 Cook CS, Smith PA. Clinical Update: Why PRP Should Be Your First Choice for Injection Therapy in Treating Osteoarthritis of the Knee. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2018 Oct 22. doi: 10.1007/s12178-018-9524-x.
3 Glynn LG, Mustafa A, Casey M, et al. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy for knee arthritis: a feasibility study in primary care. Pilot Feasibility Stud. 2018;4:93. Published 2018 Jul 4. doi:10.1186/s40814-018-0288-2
4 Wu YT, Hsu KC, Li TY, Chang CK, Chen LC. Effects of platelet-rich plasma on pain and muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation. 2017 Nov.
5 Xing D, Wang B, Zhang W, Yang Z, Hou Y, Chen Y, Lin J. Intra‐articular platelet‐rich plasma injections for knee osteoarthritis: An overview of systematic reviews and risk of bias considerations. International journal of rheumatic diseases. 2017 Dec 5.
6 Campbell KA, Saltzman BM, Mascarenhas R, Khair MM, Verma NN, Bach BR Jr, Cole BJ. A Systematic Review of Overlapping Meta-analyses. Arthroscopy. 2015 Nov;31(11):2213-21. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2015.03.041. Epub 2015 May 29.
7 Pourcho AM, Smith J, Wisniewski SJ, Sellon JL.Intraarticular platelet-rich plasma injection in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: review and recommendations. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Nov;93(11 Suppl 3):S108-21. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000115.
8 Gobbi A, Karnatzikos G, Mahajan V, Malchira S. Platelet-rich plasma treatment in symptomatic patients with knee osteoarthritis: preliminary results in a group of active patients. Sports Health. 2012;4(2):162-72.
9 Kavadar G, Demircioglu DT, Celik MY, Emre TY. Effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of moderate knee osteoarthritis: a randomized prospective study. J Phys Ther Sci. 2015 Dec;27(12):3863-7. doi: 10.1589/jpts.27.3863. Epub 2015 Dec 28.
10 Kirkendall DT. Management of the Retired Athlete with Osteoarthritis of the Knee. Cartilage January 2012 vol. 3 no. 1 suppl 69S-76S
11 Wang-Saegusa A, Cugat R, Ares O, et al. Infiltration of plasma rich in growth factors for osteoarthritis of the knee short-term effects on function and quality of life. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2011 Mar;131(3):311-7. Epub 2010 Aug 17.
12 Injection of platelet-rich plasma in patients with primary and secondary knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study. Sampson S, Reed M, Silvers H, ey al. Injection of platelet-rich plasma in patients with primary and secondary knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study.Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Dec;89(12):961-9.1537-2290
Throughout this website you read about our clinical observations surrounding the use of bone marrow derived stem cells in the treatment of degenerative joint, tendon, ligament, and spine disease. In late 2018, after much research, I decided to add new products to our treatment line. Part of my decision was based on research like this, published in October 2018 in the journal Regenerative Medicine. (1)
“Stem cell-based therapy for the treatment of orthopedic diseases is arguably one of the most remarkable developments in the field of regenerative medicine. A better understanding of Mesenchymal stem cell biology and identification of Mesenchymal stem cells in (umbilical) cord blood have added umbilical cord blood to the sources of stem cells used for treatment of nonhematopoietic diseases.”
In that same study, the researchers noted: “the data conclusively establish that (umbilical cord blood) is enriched in cytokines (proteins that communicate commands to stem cells) and growth factors that play an important role in bone regeneration and repair.”
Bone regeneration and repair is certainly an appealing treatment for degenerative joint disease. Later in this chapter we will look at the research surrounding the impact of growth factors and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells not only for bone repair, but cartilage repair as well.
RESEARCH ON UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD STEM CELL THERAPY IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS
In the Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery, (2) doctors reported on the effects of umbilical cord blood stem cell therapy on their patients. Here are the learning points of their study:
- Between January 2015 and January 2016, 36 patients with moderate or severe degenerative knee osteoarthritis were randomly divided into 2 groups of 18 patients each.
- Intra-articular injection of human umbilical cord stem cell suspension was performed once a month for 2 times as a course of treatment in the cell treatment group; sodium hyaluronate by intra-articular injection was used once a week for 5 times as a course of treatment in the control group.
- All patients of 2 groups received a course of treatment.
- The patients were followed up for 6 months.
- In the stem cell treatment group, standardized pain and function scores at 2-6 months after treatment were significantly better when compared with scores before treatment, and no recurrence of knee pain was observed during follow-up.
- The standardized pain and function scores at 1 and 2 months after treatment between 2 groups were similar but the scores of the cell treatment group were significantly better than those of the control group at 3 and 6 months.
Conclusion: Human umbilical cord stem cells can significantly improve the joint function and quality of life for patients with degenerative knee osteoarthritis. It takes effect after 1 month and the treatment effect can be sustained for 6 months.
A December 2018 study in the medical journal Stem cells translational medicine (3) examined single versus multiple umbilical cord blood stem cell treatments in patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis.
The patients in this study either:
- Received hyaluronic acid injections at the baseline of the study and at 6 months.
- Received a single-dose umbilical cord blood stem cell treatment at baseline.
- Received two umbilical cord blood stem cell treatments at baseline and 6 months.
- Clinical scores and magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were assessed throughout the 12 months follow-up.
- No severe adverse events were reported.
- Only umbilical cord blood stem cell treatment patients experienced significant pain and function improvements from baseline.
- Patients reached significantly lower levels of pain in the two umbilical cord blood stem cell treatment group as compared with the hyaluronic acid injection group.
- Repeated umbilical cord blood stem cell treatment is safe and superior to hyaluronic acid injections in knee osteoarthritis at 1-year follow-up.
There is a controversy surrounding umbilical cord blood stem cells therapy offered in the United States. The controversy surrounds the makeup of the injectable solution. There are those in the medical community who insist that the injectable solution contains beneficial and abundant live umbilical cord blood stem cells. There are those who suggest that there were no live umbilical cord blood stem cells in the injectable solution. As of the time this question remains debated.
Are you a candidate for treatment? Ask Dr. Darrow
A leading provider of stem cell therapy, platelet rich plasma and prolotherapy
11645 WILSHIRE BOULEVARD SUITE 120, LOS ANGELES, CA 90025
1 Sane MS, Misra N, Mousa OM, Czop S, Tang H, Khoo LT, Jones CD, Mustafi SB. Cytokines in umbilical cord blood-derived cellular product: a mechanistic insight into bone repair. Regenerative medicine. 2018 Oct 22;13(8):881-98.
2 Park YB, Ha CW, Lee CH, Yoon YC, Park YG. Cartilage Regeneration in Osteoarthritic Patients by a Composite of Allogeneic Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Hyaluronate Hydrogel: Results from a Clinical Trial for Safety and Proof-of-Concept with 7 Years of Extended Follow-Up. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2016;6(2):613-621. (1025)
3 Wang Y, Jin W, Liu H, Cui Y, Mao Q, Fei Z, Xiang C. CURATIVE EFFECT OF HUMAN UMBILICAL CORD MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS BY INTRA-ARTICULAR INJECTION FOR DEGENERATIVE KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS. Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi= Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi= Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery. 2016 Dec;30(12):1472-7.
There is controversy in the medical community about umbilical cord blood stem cells. Some insist that the injectable solution contains abundant live umbilical cord blood stem cells. Some suggest that the stem cells are not alive. I have seen the flow cytometry showing live stem cells. The research shows that these stem cells release cytokines and growth factors that awaken native stem cells. I have tried this treatment on myself for both shoulders and knees. After great success, I started using this treatment on patients. I still use PRP and bone marrow depending on the patient’s pathology and requirements. To date the results are excellent for all of these treatments. We are in the process of doing a study on cord blood stem cells (we have done others on bone marrow and PRP) to see which treatments are the most successful. We are awaiting more long term results.